Mortgages are generally structured as long-term loans, with periodic payments similar to an annuity and calculated on the basis of the present value of monetary formulas. The most basic scheme would require a fixed monthly payment over a period of ten to thirty years, depending on local conditions. During this period, the main component of the loan (the initial loan) would be repaid slowly by amortization. In practice, many variants are possible and widespread throughout the world and within each country. Both methods compensate the lender as if they were claiming interest, but the loans are structured so that they are not in the name, and the lender shares the financial risks associated with the transaction with the home buyer. [Citation required] In many legal systems, it is normal for home purchases to be financed by a mortgage. Few people have enough savings or cash to buy real estate directly. In countries with the highest demand for housing, domestic mortgage markets have grown. Mortgages can be financed either by the banking sector (i.e.
by short-term deposits) or through capital markets, through a process called securitization, which converts mortgage pools into fungible bonds, which can be sold to investors in small denominations. Since the value of the property is an important factor in understanding the risk of the loan, determining value is a key factor in the granting of mortgages. Value can be determined in different ways, but the most common are: loan contracts are usually written, but there is no legal reason why a loan contract cannot be a purely oral contract (although oral agreements are more difficult to impose). The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs guarantees mortgages taken out by military veterans. VA loans are similar to FHA loans because the government does not borrow money itself, but insures or guarantees a loan from another lender. In the event that a Veteran does not hold his loan in default, the government will repay the lender at least 25% of the loan.