The U.S. government does not authorize the union shop in any federal authority, whether state law permits it or not. The four major sports leagues are unions, although a franchise may be in a state with a right to work or a constitutional provision. In Article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights, the European Court of Human Rights provided in Seensen and Rasmussen/Denmark (2006) for „a negative right of association or, in other words, a right of non-membership of an association.“ As a result, closed transactions are illegal under section 11 of the agreement. The Taft-Hartley Act also prohibits unions from imposing excessively high initiation fees as a condition of membership, in order to prevent unions from using introductory fees as a means of removing non-unionized workers from a particular sector. In addition, the National Labor Relations Act authorizes contractors to enter into pre-lease agreements in which they agree to source from a group of workers seconded by the union. The LNRA prohibits pre-leases outside the construction industry.  Such agreements attract attention for a wide range of reasons, and some quarters are presumed to violate the LRA`s freedom of association provisions and Section 18 of the consitution, which deals with the right to join or leave groups of their choice. A store closed before entry (or a simple closed store) is a form of union security agreement under which the employer undertakes to recruit only union members and workers must remain members of the union at all times to remain employed.
This is different from a closed company after entry (Us: Union Shop) which is an agreement that requires all workers to join the union if they are not already members.  In a union activity, the union must accept as a member any person hired by the employer.  All forms of closed trade in the United Kingdom are illegal after the introduction of the Employment Act in 1990. They were further reduced under Section 137 (1) (a) of the Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 (approximately 52) , which was passed at the time by the Conservative government. The then-opposition Labour Party had supported closed operations until December 1989, when it abandoned the policy in accordance with EU law.  Equity was one of the last unions in the United Kingdom to offer a closed store before entry until the 1990 Act.  Store contracts are included in Section 26 of the Labour Relations Act („LRA“) and are perhaps among the most sensitive and controversial provisions of the LRA with respect to the constitutionality of these agreements that I referred to.