Enforcement mechanisms could include a United Nations peacekeeping operation or a regional peacekeeping operation. They may also include monitoring committees chaired by the United Nations or a neutral third party, including parties to the conflict and other relevant actors necessary for peacebuilding. A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or governments, that formally ends a state of war between the parties.  It is different from a ceasefire which is a cessation of hostilities agreement; A capitulation in which an army agrees to give up arms; or a ceasefire or a ceasefire in which the parties can agree to temporarily or permanently stop the fighting. The art of negotiating a peace treaty in modern times has been described by the jurist Christine Bell as lex pacificatoria with a peace treaty that could contribute to the legal framework of the post-conflict or jus post bellum.  The procedural components define the processes that establish and maintain peace. They define how a peace process has been put in place by defining the processes and measures that contribute to peacebuilding. This includes establishing timetables and institutions to facilitate the implementation of key issues such as elections, justice, human rights and disarmament. In modern history, some persistent conflict situations may be brought to a ceasefire before being dealt with through a peace process in which a series of discrete steps are taken on either side to achieve the mutual goal of peace and the signing of a treaty. Another famous example would be the series of peace treaties known as the Peace of Westphalia.
It initiated modern diplomacy that set up the modern system of nation-states. The wars that followed were no longer about religion, but about questions of state. This encouraged catholic and Protestant powers to denigrate each other, leading to a series of major reorientations. In any long-running violent conflict, transgressions against justice are inevitable. Peace agreements must be structured in such a way as to recognize these offences and, in most cases, to bring justice to the victims. Michelle Maiese`s „Addressing Injustice“ section defines a framework for categorizing injustice and then strategies to address injustice in the structure of peace agreements. This element set out the fundamental ideas of understanding the nature of peace agreements. Much remains to be said. Other elements of this group add more information. The following section deals immediately with the substantive provisions of peace agreements, in particular the types of agreements that can reduce intractable conflicts. The terms „comprehensive agreements“ and „Framework Agreements“ are often used synonymously. But there is a small difference between the two types of agreements: rebuilding the social fabric between states or within a state can be extremely difficult.
In some cases, state-building or nation-building may seem impossible. (The U.S. experience in Iraq 2004-2005 is certainly an example of what is, if not impossible, much more difficult than the U.S. government expected!) The section on socio-structural aspects of peace agreements deals with how some of these problems can be recognized and resolved. . . .